Glyn Morrill

Glyn "Rocky" Morrill

Judged

XXVIII - VII - MMXVIII

YouTube

Habilitat per al cos de catedràtics, resolució d'ANECA 22 de novembre 2012

ICREA Acadèmia 2012

Department of Computer Science,
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya,
Jordi Girona Salgado, 31
08034 Barcelona.
Tel.: +34 93 413 7843
e-mail: morrill_DELETE_THIS_@cs.upc.edu
http: http://www.cs.upc.edu/~morrill/

When Jesus died on the cross he atoned for the sin of the world.

The meaning of life

Photo circa 1992.

Photo 2013.

Photo of my children Lena and Joan.

Me with Lena and Joan.

Última carta de Gabriel García Márquez

My research falls in the fields of natural language and computer science. It forms a part of the digital humanities and as such is interdisciplinary. It focuses in particular on the interface of linguistics, computation, and logic. The objective is to proportion a computational environment in which to analyse the syntax and semantics of human language. In this way we aim to help move linguistics from a paradigm which attempted by hand the derivation of analyses and verification of grammars, to a paradigm in which the same is done computationally, with the consequent enormous gain in economy and reliability.

The framework in which this is done is (type) logical grammar. In this approach grammar is reduced to logic: an expression is gramatical if and only if an associated logical statement is a theorem of a calculus. Thus parsing is deduction, and the calculus is constructive: the proof of the grammaticality of an expression provides its semantics in terms of the semantics of its words.

I have been pursuing this programme for 30 years. Recently I and my students have developped the displacement calculus which generalizes in a satisfactory way the classical treatment of continuity to discontinuity. This has enabled me to implement a Prolog parser/theorem-prover CatLog which efficiently analyses sentences according to logical grammar and which generates their derivacions and semantic readings in LaTeX: https://catlog3.cs.upc.edu

European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information course, Summer 2015, Displacement Logic for Grammar (Glyn Morrill and Oriol Valentín). Slides: A, B, C, D, E, F, G.

Barcelona Graduate School in Mathematics course, Autumn 2015, Mathematical Logic and Linguistics (Glyn Morrill and Oriol Valentín). Slides: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, annex10, 11, 12.

Photo: me, Michael Moortgat and Raffaella Bernardi, Ottawa 2003. (For a putative categorial syntactic structure to be correct, a proof net, it has to contain a Girard ``long trip''.)

Curriculum

  • Morrill (forthcoming) `A note on movement in logical grammar', Journal of Language Modelling. Preprint.
  • Morrill, Kuznetsov, Kanovich and Scedrov (2018) Bracket Induction for Lambek Calculus with Bracket Modalities. In Foret, Kobele and Pogodalla (eds.) Proceedings of Formal Grammar Sofia, 84-101. Preprint.
  • Morrill (2018) The CatLog3 Technical Manual, examples, l2, lexicon.
  • Morrill (2018) The CatLog2 Technical Manual.
  • Morrill and Valentín (2018) `Spurious Ambiguity and Focalization', Computational Linguistics, 44, 2, 285-327.
  • Kanovich, Kuznetsov, Morrill and Scedrov (2017) `A Polynomial-Time Algorithm for the Lambek Calculus with Brackets of Bounded Order', in Miller (ed.) Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Formal Structures for Computation and Deduction (FSCD 2017), Article No. 22, pp. 22.1-22.17, Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPICS. Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl Publishing, Germany.
  • Morrill (2017) `Parsing Logical Grammar: CatLog3', in Loukanova and Liefke (eds.) Proceedings of the Workshop on Logic and Algorithms in Computational Linguistics 2017, LACompLing2017, DiVA, Stockholm University, 107-131, http://su.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1140018/FULLTEXT03.pdf.
  • Kuznetsov, Morrill and Valentín (2017) `Count-Invariance Including Exponentials', in Kanazawa, de Groote and Sadrzadeh (eds.) 15th Meeting on Mathematics of Language, London 2017.
  • Morrill (2017) `Grammar Logicised: Relativisation', Linguistics and Philosophy, 40, 2, 119-163. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10988-016-9197-0
  • Morrill and Valentín (2017) `A Reply to Kubota and Levine on Gapping', Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 35, 1, 257--270. DOI 10.1007/s11049-016-9336-x. SharedIt link: http://rdcu.be/nXnd.
  • Morrill and Valentín (2016) `On the Logic of Expansion in Natural Language', Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics 2016, Nancy, France. In Amblard, de Groote, Pogadalla and Retoré (eds.), Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 10054, pp. 228--246), Springer, Berlin.
  • Morrill and Valentín (2016) `Computational Coverage of Type Logical Grammar: The Montague Test', in Piñón (ed.) Empirical Issues in Syntax and Semantics 11, pp. 141--170. Paris: Colloque de Syntaxe et Sémantique à Paris (CSSP). http://www.cssp.cnrs.fr/eiss11/.
  • Corbalán and Morrill (2016) `Overtly Anaphoric Control in Type Logical Grammar', Formal Grammar 2016. In Foret, Morrill, Muskens, Osswald and Pogodalla (eds.) Formal Grammar 2015, Barcelona, Spain: Revised Selected Papers. Formal Grammar 2016, Bolzano, Italy: Proceedings. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, FoLLI Publications on Logic, Language and Information, LNCS 9804, Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 183--199, 2016.
  • Morrill and Valentín 2015: `Multiplicative-Additive Focusing for Parsing as Deduction', in Cervesato and Schürmann (eds.) First International Workshop on Focusing, workshop affiliated with LPAR, Suva, Fiji, 2015. EPTCS 197, 29--54. Doi: 4204/EPTCS.197.4
  • Morrill and Valentín 2015: `Computational Coverage of TLG: The Montague Test', in Abstracts of the 2015 Colloque de Sintaxe et Sémantique à Paris, Université Paris Diderot, pp. 63-68. Annex: output of CatLog2 taking the Montague test 9th October 2015.
  • Foret, Morrill, Muskens & Osswald 2015 (eds.) Preproceedings of the 20th Conference on Formal Grammar, Barcelona.
  • Morrill and Valentín 2015: `Computational Coverage of TLG: Nonlinearity', in Kanazawa, Moss & de Paiva (eds.) Proceedings of NLCS'15. Third Workshop on Natural Language and Computer Science, Kyoto, workshop affiliated with Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP) and Logic in Computer Science (LICS), EPiC Volume 32, pp. 51-63, 2015.
  • Morrill and Valentín 2015: `Computational Coverage of TLG: Displacement', in Y. Kubota & R. Levine (eds.) Proceedings of Empirical Advances in Categorial Grammar, workshop, European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information 2015, Barcelona, pp. 132-161.
  • Morrill 2015: `Structural Ambiguity in Montague Grammar and Categorial Grammar', The Linguistic Review, 32, 1, 87--113. DOI 10.1515/tlr-2014-0017.
  • Morrill, Muskens, Osswald and Richter 2014 (eds.) Formal Grammar: 19th International Conference; FG 2014 Tübingen, Germany, August 2014, Proceedings. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, FoLLI Publications on Logic, Language and Information, LNCS 8612, Springer, Heidelberg.
  • Morrill and Valentín 2014: `Semantically Inactive Multiplicatives and Words as Types', in Asher & Soloviev (eds.) Proceedings of Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics, 8th International Conference, LACL 2014, Toulouse, Springer LNCS 8535, FoLLI Publications in Logic, Language and Information, pp. 149--162.
  • Morrill 2014: `A Categorial Type Logic', in Casadio, Coeke, Moortgat and Scott (eds.) Categories and Types in Logic, Language and Physics: Essays Dedicated to Jim Lambek on the Occasion of His 90th Birthday. Springer LNCS Volume 8222, FoLLI Publications in Logic, Language and Information, pp. 331--352.
  • Morrill and Valentín 2014: `Displacement logic for anaphora', Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 80(2014), 390--409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcss.2013.05.006.
  • Morrill and Nederhof 2013 (eds.) Formal Grammar: 17th and 18th International Conferences; FG 2012 Opole, Poland, August 2012, Revised Selected Papers; FG 2013 Düsseldorf, Germany, August 2013, Proceedings. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, FoLLI Publications on Logic, Language and Information, LNCS 8036, Springer, Heidelberg.
  • Valentín, Serret and Morrill 2013: `A Count Invariant for Lambek Calculus with Additives and Bracket Modalities', in Morrill and Nederhof (eds), Proceedings of Formal Grammar 2012 and 2013. Springer LNCS 8036, FoLLI Publications in Logic, Language and Information, pp. 263--276.
  • Morrill 2012: `CatLog: A Categorial Parser/Theorem-Prover', System Demonstration, Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics 2012, LACL'12, Nantes.
  • Morrill and Valentín 2012: `Generalized Discontinuity', in Philippe de Groote and Mark-Jan Nederhof (eds.), Revised Selected Papers of Formal Grammar 2010, Copenhagen, and 2011, Lubljana, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, FoLLI subseries, LNCS 7395, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 146--161.
  • Morrill 2012: `Logical Grammar', in Ruth Kempson, Tim Fernando and Nick Asher (eds), Philosophy of Linguistics, Volume 14 of Dov M. Gabbay, Paul Thagard and John Woods (eds.) Handbook of the Philosophy of Science, North Holland, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 63--92. Prepublication version
  • Morrill 2011: `Logic Programming of the Displacement Calculus', in Sylvain Pogodalla and Jean-Philippe Prost (eds.) Proceedings of Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics 2011, LACL'11, Montpellier. Springer Lecture Notes in AI, LNAI 6736, Springer, Berlin, 175--189.
  • Morrill, Valentín and Fadda 2011: `The Displacement Calculus', Journal of Logic, Language and Information, Volume 20, Number 1, 1--48. DOI 10.1007/s10849--010--9129--2.
  • Morrill 2011: Categorial Grammar: Logical Syntax, Semantics, and Processing. Research monograph. Oxford University Press. Sample chapter.
  • Morrill and Valentín 2010: `On Calculus of Displacement', TAG+10, Proceedings of TAG+Related Formalisms 2010. University of Yale.
  • Morrill and Valentín 2010: `On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar', in Anuj Dawar and Ruy de Queiroz (eds.) Proceedings of the 17th International Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation, WoLLIC 2010, Brasília, Brazil, July 2010, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, LNAI 6188, Springer, Berlin, 176--190.
  • Morrill and Valentín 2010: `Displacement Calculus', Linguistic Analysis, Volume 36, 167--192. Special issue dedicated to Jim Lambek, http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.4181.
  • Morrill 2010: `Categorial Grammar', in Bernd Heine and Heiko Narrog (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis, Oxford University Press, 67--86.
  • Morrill and Gavarró 2010: `Categorial Complexity of Relativisation and Child Romance Performance', In Pedro Guijarro-Fuentes & Laura Domínguez (eds.) New Directions in Language Acquisition: Romance Languages in the Generative Perspective, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne, 365-387.
  • Morrill, Valentín and Fadda 2009: `Dutch Grammar and Processing: A Case Study in TLG', in Bosch, Gabelaia and Lang (eds.) Logic, Language, and Computation: 7th International Tbilisi Symposium, Revised Selected Papers, Springer Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence No. 5422, 272--286.
  • Morrill and Fadda 2008: `Proof Nets for Basic Discontinuous Lambek Calculus', Journal of Logic and Computation, 18, 2, 239--256. Warning: I think main theorem (25) is in error concerning empty antecedents.
  • Morrill 2007: `A Chronicle of Type Logical Grammar': 1935--1994, Research on Language and Computation, 5, 3, 359--386.
  • Morrill, Fadda and Valentín 2007: `Nondeterministic Discontinuous Lambek Calculus', in Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Computational Semantics, IWCS7, Tilburg.
  • Morrill 2006: `Categorial Grammars: Deductive Approaches', in Keith Brown (ed.) Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics , 2nd Edition, Elsevier, Oxford, Volume Two, 242--248.
  • Carpenter and Morrill 2005: ` Switch Graphs for Parsing Type Logical Grammars', in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Parsing Technology, IWPT05, Vancouver.
  • Morrill 2005: `Geometry of Language and Linguistic Circuitry', in C. Casadio, P.J. Scott and R.A.G. Seely (eds.) Language and Grammar: Studies in Mathematical Linguistics and Natural Language, CSLI Lecture Notes No. 168, Stanford, 237--264.
  • Fadda and Morrill 2005: `The Lambek Calculus with Brackets', in C. Casadio, P.J. Scott and R.A.G. Seely (eds.) Language and Grammar: Studies in Mathematical Linguistics and Natural Language, CSLI Lecture Notes No. 168, Stanford, 113--128.
  • Morrill and Gavarró 2004: `On Aphasic Comprehension and Working Memory Load', in Proceedings of Categorial Grammars: An efficient tool for Natural Language Processing, Montpellier, 259--287.
  • Morrill 2003: `On Bound Anaphora in Type Logical Grammar', in Geert-Jan M. Kruijff and Richard T. Oehrle (eds.) Resource-Sensitivity, Binding and Anaphora, Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy 80, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 159-177.
  • Morrill 2003: `Syntax and Semantics: Formal Approaches', in Lynn Nadel (ed.) Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, Volume 4, Nature Publishing Group, MacMillan, London, 338-345.
  • Morrill 2002: `Towards Generalised Discontinuity', in Jager, Monachesi, Penn and Wintner (eds.) 2002, Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Formal Grammar, Trento, ESSLLI 2002, 103-111.
  • Morrill 2002: `Islands, coordination and parasitic gaps', in V.M. Abrusci and C. Casadio (eds.), 2002, New Perspectives in Logic and Formal Linguistics, Proceedings Vth Roma Workshop, Bulzoni Editore, Roma. Also Report de Recerca LSI-02-16-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Morrill 2001: Lògica de primer ordre, intermediate level textbook, Edicions UPC. http://www.edicionsupc.es/virtuals/fautcat.htm
  • de Groote, Morrill and Retoré (eds.) 2001, Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics, Fourth International Conference, LACL'01, Le Croisic, France, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • Morrill 2000: `Incremental Processing and Acceptability', Computational Linguistics, 26, 3, 319-338. Formerly Report de Recerca LSI-98-46-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Morrill 2000: `Type-Logical Anaphora', Report de Recerca LSI-00-77-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Morrill 2000: `Dutch Word Order and Binding', Report de Recerca LSI-00-59-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Morrill 1999: `Geometry of Lexico-Syntactic Interaction', appendix, Proceedings of the European Association for Computational Linguistics, EACL99, Bergen, 61-70.
  • Morrill 1999: `Relational Interpretation and Geometrical Form', in V. Michele Abrusci and Claudia Casadio (eds.), Dynamic Perspectives in Logic and Linguistics, Bulzoni Editore, Roma, 145-182. Formerly Syntactic Connectivity, Report de Recerca LSI-98-26-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Merenciano and Morrill 1997: `Generation as deduction on labelled proof nets', in C. Retoré (ed.) Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of LACL96, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 310-328.
  • Morrill 1997: `Geometry of Language', Report de Recerca LSI-97-45-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Morrill 1997: `Proof syntax of discontinuity', in Paul Dekker, Martin Stockhof and Yde Venema (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th Amsterdam Colloquium, ILLC, Amsterdam, 235-240.
  • Morrill 1996: `Grammar and logic', Theoria, LXII, 3, 260-293.
  • Morrill 1996: `Memoisation of categorial proof nets: parallelism in categorial processing', in V. Michele Abrusci and Claudia Casadio (eds.) Proofs and Linguistic Categories, Proceedings 1996 Roma Workshop, 157-169. Formerly Report de Recerca LSI-96-24-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Morrill and Merenciano 1996: `Generalising discontinuity', traitement automatique des langues, 27, 2, 119-143. Formerly Report de Recerca LSI-95-53-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Lloré and Morrill 1995: `Difference Lists and Difference Bags for Logic Programming of Categorial Deduction', in Proceedings of SEPLN XI, Deusto. Also Report de Recerca LSI-95-30-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Morrill 1995: `Discontinuity in Categorial Grammar', Linguistics and Philosophy, 18, 2, 175-219. Formerly `Discontinuity and Pied-Piping in Categorial Grammar', in M. Moortgat (ed.) Polymorphic Treatments, DYANA-2, 61-112, and Report de Recerca LSI-93-18-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Morrill 1995: `Clausal Proofs and Discontinuity', Bulletin of the Interest Group in Pure and Applied Logics, 3, 2-3, 403-427. Formerly ` Clausal Proof Nets and Discontinuity', Report de Recerca LSI-94-21-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Morrill 1995: `Higher Order Linear Logic Programming of Categorial Deduction', Proceedings of the European Association for Computational Linguistics, EACL95, Dublin, 133-140. This being a refinement and condensation of Report de Recerca LSI-94-42-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Morrill and Gavarró 1995: `Semiòtica, funció simbòlica i llenguatge poètic: Relacions amb la linguística', in P. Folch and M.T. Miró (eds.) Debats a la cruilla sobre el símbol, Promociones y Publicaciones Universitarias, Barcelona, 169--175.
  • Morrill 1994: Type Logical Grammar: Categorial Logic of Signs, research monograph, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. Sample chapter.
  • Morrill 1994: `Structural Facilitation and Structural Inhibition', in M. Abrusci, C. Casadio and M. Moortgat (eds.) Linear Logic and Lambek Calculus (EPRIT BRA 6852 DYANA-2), 183-210. Also Report de Recerca LSI-94-26-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Morrill and Solias 1993: `Tuples, Discontinuity and Gapping in Categorial Grammar', in Proceedings of the European Chapter Association for Computational Linguistics, EACL93, Utrecht, 287-297.
  • Morrill 1992: `The Logical School of Categorial Grammar', in Alain Lecomte (ed.) Word Order in Categorial Grammar / l'Ordre des Mots dans les Grammaires Catégorielles, Proceedings of the DYANA Workshop, Adosa, Clermont-Ferrand, 81-92.
  • Morrill and Gavarró 1992: `Catalan Clitics', in Alain Lecomte (ed.) Word Order in Categorial Grammar / l'Ordre des Mots dans les Grammaires Catégorielles, Proceedings of the DYANA Workshop, Adosa, Clermont-Ferrand, 211-232.
  • Morrill 1992: `Categorial Formalisation of Relativisation: Islands, Extraction Sites and Pied Piping', Report de Recerca LSI-92-23-R, Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
  • Moortgat and Morrill 1991: `Heads and Phrases: Type Calculus for Dependency and Constituent Structure', ms. University of Utrecht.
  • Barry, Hepple, Leslie and Morrill 1991: `Proof Figures and Structural Operators for Categorial Grammar', in Proceedings of the European Association for Computational Linguistics, EACL91, Berlin, 198-203.
  • Morrill 1990: `Rules and Derivation: Binding Phenomena and Coordination in Categorial Logic', DYANA BR 3175 Deliverable R1.2.D.
  • Morrill 1990: Grammar and Logical Types, in Martin Stokhof and Leen Torenvliet (eds.) Proceedings of the 1989 Seventh Amsterdam Colloquium, 429-450.
  • Morrill 1990: `Intensionality and Boundedness', Linguistics and Philosophy, 13, 6, 699-726.
  • Morrill and Carpenter 1990: `Compositionality, Implicational Logics, and Theories of Grammar', Linguistics and Philosophy, 13, 2, 383-392.
  • Morrill, Leslie, Hepple and Barry 1990: `Categorial Deductions and Structural Operations', in Guy Barry and Glyn Morrill (eds.) Studies in Categorial Grammar, Edinburgh Working Papers in Cognitive Science, Volume 5, 1-21.
  • Morrill 1989: `Grammar as Logic', Research Paper 34, Centre for Cognitive Science, University of Edinburgh.
  • Hepple and Morrill 1989: `Parsing and Derivational Equivalence', in Proceedings of the European Association for Computational Linguistics, EACL89, Manchester, 10-18.
  • Morrill 1988: Extraction and Coordination in Phrase Structure Grammar and Categorial Grammar, PhD, Centre for Cognitive Science, University of Edinburgh.
  • Morrill 1987: `Phrase Structure Grammar and Categorial Grammar', in Ewan Klein and Johan van Benthem (eds.) Categories, Polymorphism and Unification, Centre for Cognitive Science, University of Edinburgh and Institute for Logic, Language and Information, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 201-230.
  • Morrill 1987: `Meta-Categorial Grammar', in Nick Haddock, Ewan Klein and Glyn Morrill (eds.) Categorial Grammar, Unification Grammar, and Parsing, Edinburgh Working Papers in Cognitive Science, Volume 1, 1-29.
  • Morrill 1985: `Analysis of Relative Clauses in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar, Combinatory Categorial Grammar, and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar', masters thesis, Centre for Cognitive Science, University of Edinburgh.

    PhD theses directed:

    External director 2014-16 of Inés Corbalán (2018) PhD.

    Director (with codirector Oriol Valentín) of Carles Cardó (2018) Algebraic Dependency Grammar, PhD, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.

    Director of Oriol Valentín (2012) Theory of Discontinuous Lambek Calculus, PhD, Universitat Autònoma de Catalunya.

    Director of Mario Fadda (2010) Geometry of Grammar: Exercises in Lambek Style, PhD, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.

    Director (with codirector J. Carlos Ruiz Antón) of F. Xavier Lloré (1995) Un método de `parsing' para gramáticas categoriales multimodales, PhD, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.

    JOHN 15

    13 Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.

    JOHN 19

    28 After this, Jesus, knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.

    29 Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar; and they filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth.

    30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished, and gave up the ghost.

    LUKE 24

    Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.

    2 And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.

    3 And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.